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Santiago Long
Santiago Long

Kt So Collection


The authors receive support from the NIHR Programme Grants for Applied Research scheme (RP-PG-0108-10084). Louise Howard also receives salary support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Mental Health Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King's College London. This paper presents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Programme Grants for Applied Research scheme (RP-PG-0108-10084). The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. The funder had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.




Kt So Collection


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I didn't... Feature Meals from Global Learning Program trip to China A small collection of images captured by Justin Hayworth, College photographer and videographer during the recent Global Learning Program trip to China.


This section contains two parts. The first part summarizes environmental impacts, performance measures and data collection methods and the second part summarizes environmental findings and study limitations.


Interpretive Summary: Harnessing diversity from germplasm collections is more feasible than ever due to the development of lower-cost and higher-throughput genotyping methods, but the cost of phenotyping is still generally high, so efficient methods to sample and exploit useful diversity are needed. Genomic selection (GS) has the potential to enhance the use of desirable genetic variation in germplasm collections, through predicting genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for as many traits as measured. In this study, we evaluate various population genetic properties and marker densities on the accuracy of GEBVs for applying GS for wheat germplasm utilization. Stripe rust resistance data of 1,163 globally sourced spring wheat accessions that were genotyped with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay were used for conducting various genomic prediction tests. We found that prediction accuracy increased with increase in training population size and marker density. All 5,619 SNP markers detected in the assessions were not necessary to capture the trait variation in the germplasm collection, with no further gain in prediction accuracy beyond 1,850 markers (1 SNP per 3.2 cM), which is close to the linkage disequilibrium decay rate in this population. Collectively, our results suggest that larger germplasm collections may be efficiently sampled based on lower-density genotyping methods, while genetic relationships between the training and validation populations is critical when exploiting GS to select from germplasm collections.


Technical Abstract: Harnessing diversity from germplasm collections is more feasible than ever due to the development of lower-cost and higher-throughput genotyping methods. At the same time, the cost of phenotyping is still generally high, so efficient methods to sample and exploit useful diversity are needed. Genomic selection (GS) has the potential to enhance the utilization of desirable genetic variation in germplasm collections, through prediction of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) for as many traits as have been measured. Here, we evaluate various scenarios of population genetic properties and marker density on the accuracy of GEBVs in the context of applying GS for wheat germplasm utilization. Empirical data for adult plant resistance to stripe rust in 1,163 globally sourced spring wheat accessions that were genotyped with the wheat 9K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) iSelect assay were used for conducting various genomic prediction tests. Not surprisingly, the results of the cross-validation tests demonstrated that prediction accuracy increased with increase in training population size and marker density. The ridge regression-Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (RR-BLUP) method of GS revealed that all available markers (5,619) were not necessary to capture the trait variation in the germplasm collection, with no further gain in prediction accuracy beyond 1 SNP per 3.2 cM (1,850 markers), which is close to the linkage disequilibrium decay rate in this population. Collectively, our results suggest that larger germplasm collections may be efficiently sampled based on lower-density genotyping methods, while genetic relationships between the training and validation populations remains critical when exploiting GS to select from germplasm collections.


Each function in this module returns a list of (property_name, propterty) for a given class (or set of classes). Each function is parameterized on the type of the collection to check, so a value witnessing the type must be passed. This value is guaranteed not to be evaluated, so it can always be undefined.


The collections are chiefly from the 19th and early 20th centuries. The most important collection by far is that of Sir Charles Lyell - a Victorian pioneer of modern geology and avid collector of post-Cretaceous fossils. Other important holdings include the Reading University, Parker, and Bell collections.


No. 1. NEW RAINBOW - This new rose from California, which no doubt will be extensively planted, was awarded a silver cup by the State floral society. The color is a lovely shade of deep coral pink, striped and mottled in the most unique manner with intense crimson, and elegantly colored with rich, golden amber at center and base of petals. It makes beautiful buds, and the flowers are extra large, very sweet and of great depth and substance. It is a most charming new variety. Each 20c, 6 for $1.00. No. 2. THE BRIDE - Every lover of fine roses should have a plant of this peerless variety, as it fills a place in Ever-blooming Roses hitherto wanting. "The Bride" is a pure white rose of large size and most perfect form. The buds are painted and the ends of the petals are slightly curved back, giving it a most chaste and elegant appearance. This variety has the most delicious tea fragrance, and is a strong-growing, free-blooming rose either for summer or winter flowering. Each 20c., 6 for $1.00. No. 3. METEOR--This splendid rose is one of the brightest colored of all, and must be considered among the very best for bedding and general planting, as well as for growing in pots and conservatory. The color is a rich velvety crimson, exceedingly bright and striking, and the flowers are large and regular, fully double and borne on nice, long stems. It is a quick and constant bloomer, and quite fragrant. Never fails to please. It is one of the richest colored roses in existence, and no collection would be complete without it. Each 20c., 6 for $1.00. No. 4. LA FRANCE--One of the most beautiful of all roses, and is unexcelled by any in its delightful fragrance, very large, very double, superbly formed. It is difficult to convey an idea of its beautiful coloring, but the prevailing color is light silvery pink, shaded with silvery peach. It blooms continuously throughout the season, often blooming so freely as to check the growth of the plant, in which case a portion of the buds should be removed; stands first among the roses of our climate. In addition to this, it is entirely hardy, with a slight protection of leaves, and most deliciously fragrant, thus combining in a marked degree all the qualities of a perfect rose. Each 20c., 6 for $1.00.


No. 5. DWARF MARECHAL NEIL--(Our Perle)--Poets never tire of singing the praises of the Marechal Neil, the most famous of all roses, and its magnificent golden yellow buds are worn the world over, and the people always delight in it. We have seen greenhouses devoted to a single plant of this climbing variety, from which 500 to 2,000 rose buds are cut every day the year round. Why then don't every one grow it? Simply because they are difficult to grow properly in the northern states, and there are many even among the florists who do not succeed with it. But this grand dwarf variety is of the easiest culture and sure to succeed for every one. It is a sturdy, vigorous grower, strong and healthy, but shows no inclination to climb. The flowers are produced in the greatest profusion and it blooms almost continuously the year round if well cared for. The buds are of the most beautiful golden yellow, perfectly formed and handsomely painted, and of the largest and most massive size, the petals being slightly reflexed. They keep a long time after cutting and therefore are the best flower imaginable for evening wear. The open flower is very full and double and of immense size. The color always has a peculiar softness and delicacy not observed in any other variety. Unusually fragrant. We believe it to be unequaled for either pot culture or bedding, and every flower lover must have it. Price 20c each, 6 for $1.00. No. 6. CLOTHILDE SOUPERT--A decided novelty and one which should be in the collection of every lover of roses. It originated with one of the largest firms of rose growers in Europe, by a hybridization of a Tea and Polyantha rose, thus giving it the large flower and strong growth of the Tea class added to the profuse flowering of the Polyantha. It makes a handsome symmetrical bush, 15 to 18 inches high. The flowers are large, very double, of perfect shape, the outer petals are pearly white, shading to a center of rosy pink. It is fragrant and a constant bloomer. Sure to become a favorite, either for pot plants or garden bedding. Each, 20c, 6 for $1.00. COLLECTION--One strong plant each of the six choice roses named above postpaid for $1.00.


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