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Santiago Long
Santiago Long


Another way of labeling kicks is by identifying the required mud weight increase necessary to control the well and kill a potential blowout. For example, if a kick required a 0.7-lbm/gal (84-kg/m3) mud weight increase to control the well, the kick could be termed a 0.7-lbm/gal (84-kg/m3) kick. It is interesting to note that an average kick requires approximately 0.5 lbm/gal (60 kg/m3), or less, mud weight increase.



Kicks occur as a result of formation pressure being greater than mud hydrostatic pressure, which causes fluids to flow from the formation into the wellbore. In almost all drilling operations, the operator attempts to maintain a hydrostatic pressure greater than formation pressure and, thus, prevent kicks; however, on occasion the formation will exceed the mud pressure and a kick will occur. Reasons for this imbalance explain the key causes of kicks:

Insufficient mud weight is the predominant cause of kicks. A permeable zone is drilled while using a mud weight that exerts less pressure than the formation pressure within the zone. Because the formation pressure exceeds the wellbore pressure, fluids begin to flow from the formation into the wellbore and the kick occurs.

These abnormal formation pressures are often associated with causes for kicks. Abnormal formation pressures are greater pressures than in normal conditions. In well control situations, formation pressures greater than normal are the biggest concern. Because a normal formation pressure is equal to a full column of native water, abnormally pressured formations exert more pressure than a full water column. If abnormally pressured formations are encountered while drilling with mud weights insufficient to control the zone, a potential kick situation has developed. Whether or not the kick occurs depends on the permeability and porosity of the rock. A number of abnormal pressure indicators can be used to estimate formation pressures so that kicks caused by insufficient mud weight are prevented (some are listed in Table 1).

An obvious solution to kicks caused by insufficient mud weights seems to be drilling with high mud weights; however, this is not always a viable solution. First, high mud weights may exceed the fracture mud weight of the formation and induce lost circulation. Second, mud weights in excess of the formation pressure may significantly reduce the penetration rates. Also, pipe sticking becomes a serious consideration when excessive mud weights are used. The best solution is to maintain a mud weight slightly greater than formation pressure until the mud weight begins to approach the fracture mud weight and, thus, requires an additional string of casing.

Improperly filling up of the hole during trips is another prominent cause of kicks. As the drillpipe is pulled out of the hole, the mud level falls because the pipe steel no longer displaces the mud. As the overall mud level decreases, the hole must be periodically filled up with mud to avoid reducing the hydrostatic pressure and, thereby, allowing a kick to occur.

Occasionally, kicks are caused by lost circulation. A decreased hydrostatic pressure occurs from a shorter mud column. When a kick occurs from lost circulation, the problem may become severe. A large volume of kick fluid may enter the hole before the rising mud level is observed at the surface. It is recommended that the hole be filled with some type of fluid to monitor fluid levels if lost circulation occurs.

It is recommended when a drilling break is recorded that the driller should drill 3 to 5 ft (1 to 1.5 m) into the sand and then stop to check for flowing formation fluids. Flow checks are not always performed in tophole drilling or when drilling through a series of stringers in which repetitive breaks are encountered. Unfortunately, many kicks and blowouts have occurred because of this lack of flow checking.

The MWD tool offers kick-detection benefits, if the response time is less than the time it takes to observe the surface indicators. The tool can provide early detection of kicks and potential influxes, as well as monitor the kick-killing process. Tool response time is a function of the complexity of the MWD tool and the mode of operation. The sequence of data transmission determines the update times of each type of measurement. Many MWD tools allow for reprogramming of the update sequence while the tool is in the hole. This feature can enable the operator to increase the update frequency of critical information to meet the expected needs of the section being drilled. If the tool response time is longer than required for surface indicators to be observed, the MWD only serves as a confirmation source.

When a kick occurs, note the type of influx (gas, oil, or salt water) entering the wellbore. Remember that well-control procedures developed here are designed to kill all types of kicks safely. The formula required to make this kick influx calculation is as follows:

Brandon travels in a bus and sees another person with the same sneakers realizing that his "exclusive" sneakers weren't really exclusive at all. He places the gun in the Nike shoebox and throws it away taking Uncle Marlon's advice from before into consideration. He meets up with Rico and Albert in the basketball court gifting Albert a box of condoms and Rico some juice. They warn him about Flaco. As they walk home, Flaco finds them and chases them down with his son catching up from behind. He places a gun on Brandon's neck in order to teach him a lesson. Brandon knocks him over with his skateboard and kicks him in the face continuously before grabbing the gun and placing it near his face. Brandon looks at Flaco's son and tosses the gun aside deciding not to pull the trigger. Flaco's son grabs the gun and refuses to give it to Flaco so that he does not murder Brandon and go to jail. Flaco wakes up and punches Brandon repeatedly before grabbing his son and heading home.

Methods: The motions of both kicks were captured using a three-dimensional cinematographic technique. The kicking leg was modeled as a three-link kinetic chain composed of thigh, shank, and foot, from which joint torques and angular velocities were computed.

Results: The ball velocity of the side-foot kick (23.4 +/- 1.7 m x s(-1)) was significantly slower than that of the instep kick (28.0 +/- 2.1 m.s(-1)). Significant differences were also observed between the two kicks for the magnitude of hip external rotation torque (56 +/- 12 N.m in the side-foot kick; 33 +/- 8 N.m in the instep kick) and hip external rotation angular velocity (11.1 +/- 2.4 rad x s(-1) in the side-foot kick; 6.0 +/- 2.0 rad x s(-1) in the instep kick).

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