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Antipope [BETTER]


An antipope (Latin: antipapa) is a person who makes a significant and substantial attempt to occupy the position of Bishop of Rome and leader of the Catholic Church in opposition to the legitimately elected pope.[1] At times between the 3rd and mid-15th centuries, antipopes were supported by important factions within the Church itself and by secular rulers.




antipope



Hippolytus of Rome (d. 235) is commonly considered to be the earliest antipope, as he headed a separate group within the Church in Rome against Pope Callixtus I.[3] Hippolytus was reconciled to Callixtus's second successor, Pope Pontian, and both he and Pontian are honoured as saints by the Catholic Church with a shared feast day on 13 August. Whether two or more persons have been confused in this account of Hippolytus[4] and whether Hippolytus actually declared himself to be the Bishop of Rome, remains unclear, since no such claim by Hippolytus has been cited in the writings attributed to him.


Novatian (d. 258), another third-century figure, certainly claimed the See of Rome in opposition to Pope Cornelius, and if Natalius and Hippolytus were excluded because of the uncertainties concerning them, Novatian could then be said to be the first antipope.


The period in which antipopes were most numerous was during the struggles between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors of the 11th and 12th centuries. The emperors frequently imposed their own nominees to further their own causes. The popes, likewise, sometimes sponsored rival imperial claimants (anti-kings) in Germany to overcome a particular emperor.


The following table gives the names of the antipopes included in the list of popes and antipopes in the Annuario Pontificio, with the addition of the names of Natalius (in spite of doubts about his historicity) and Antipope Clement VIII (whose following was insignificant).[9]


An asterisk marks those who were included in the conventional numbering of later popes who took the same name. More commonly, the antipope is ignored in later papal regnal numbers; for example, there was an Antipope John XXIII, but the new Pope John elected in 1958 was also called John XXIII. For the additional confusion regarding popes named John, see Pope John numbering.


Thus, because of the obscurities about mid-11th-century canon law and the historical facts, the Annuario Pontificio lists Sylvester III as a pope, without thereby expressing a judgement on his legitimacy. The Catholic Encyclopedia places him in its List of Popes,[11] but with the annotation: "Considered by some to be an antipope". Other sources classify him as an antipope.[12]


As Celestine II resigned before being consecrated and enthroned in order to avoid a schism, Oxford's A Dictionary of Popes (2010) says he "...is classified, unfairly, as an antipope,"[13] a position historian Salvador Miranda also shares.[14]


As the Patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt, has historically also held the title of pope, a person who, in opposition to someone who is generally accepted as a legitimate pope of Alexandria, claims to hold that position may also be considered an antipope. In 2006, the defrocked married[citation needed] Coptic lector Max Michel became an antipope of Alexandria, calling himself Maximos I. His claim to the Alexandrine papacy was dismissed by both the Coptic Orthodox Pope Shenouda III and Pope Theodore II of the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria.[18] The Coptic pope of Alexandria and the Greek pope of Alexandria currently view one another, not as antipopes, but rather as successors to differing lines of apostolic succession that formed as a result of christological disputes in the fifth century.


Pope Gregory VII (1073-1085) was one of the great reforming pontiffs, but his demands for Papal supremacy would lead to a clash with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. Called the Investiture Controversy, it lead to a state of war between the supporters of the Papacy and Emperor. By 1080, Emperor Henry decided to install his own Pope, and called upon Guibert, archbishop of Ravenna, to fulfil the role. Ruling as Clement III, he often had control of Rome for the next 20 years, and was the start of a line of antipopes supported by the Holy Roman Emperor.


The run of antipopes supported by the Holy Roman Emperors ended with Gregory VIII, who reined from 1118 to 1121. He was eventually captured by the papal troops of Calixtus II (1119-1124), forced to surrender and was kept imprisoned in monasteries until his death in 1137.


After the end of the Western Schism, the main dispute within the church was over how much power the Papacy should wield. In 1439 the Council of Florence decided to depose the sitting pontiff over this issue and elected Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy as the new Pope. Taking the name Felix V, he tried to serve as Pope until 1449 but found little support in Europe. Eventually, he stepped down and became a Cardinal, and is now considered the last antipope.


Election to the PapacyAlexander V died soon after, and in 1410 Coscia was consecrated pope, taking the name John XXIII. He was acknowledged as pope by France, England, Bohemia, Prussia, Portugal, parts of the Holy Roman Empire, and numerous Northern Italian city states, including Florence, where the Medici supported him, and Venice. The other two popes were supported by other cities. He was not acknowledged pope by all, and since he was elected in a non-canonical manner, he was considered an antipope. From 1378 to 1417, the Western Church was torn apart in the wake of the clash between popes and anti-popes over the papal throne.


Hippolytus is accorded special recognition in Church history: Not only is he the first antipope but he is also the only antipope ever canonized! His unique case provides an example of repentence and reconcilation for those who have separated themselves from the Church.


In 1409 a council at Pisa attempted to end the schism but created even more havoc when it rejected both the Avignon and Roman claims to the papacy and elected a third pope, Alexander V. Gregory XII was the Roman claimant; Benedict XIII was the Avignon pope who was later considered an antipope.


At this point, he was ordained a priest and became the antipope, John XXIII. John had armed forces at his disposal and the support of the ruling monarch of France, Louis II of Anjou. Despite the three contenders, John XXIII wielded the most influence and the widest support. He was able to reestablish himself in Rome where he summoned a council in 1412, which was poorly attended. What followed was much political jockeying for support by various kingdoms that included Naples, the German kingdoms and France.


Written like a transcript, the report said Pope Paul began the conversation saying, "I hope to have before me a brother, a son, a friend. Unfortunately, the position you have taken is that of an antipope. What can I say? You have not allowed for any measure in your words, your actions, your behavior."


An antipope (from Latin: meaning "rival-pope" or "counter-pope")[1] is a person who makes a controversial, yet substantially accepted, claim to be the lawful Pope, and is elected in opposition to the Pope that is recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. Antipopes are typically those supported by a fairly significant faction of cardinals, and in several cases it was hard to tell who was, in fact, the lawful Pope, since the claim of each was widely accepted.


There have been several antipopes throughout the history of the Roman Catholic Church. The period when antipopes were most numerous was during the struggles between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The emperors frequently imposed their own nominees, in order to further their cause. (The popes, likewise, sometimes sponsored rival imperial claimants in Germany in order to overcome a particular emperor.) Rival claimants to the papacy were also common during the Western Schism and the Avignon Papacy.


The earliest antipope is debated. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, Natalius was the first antipope but he allegedly recanted and came back to the fold. [2] However, the most widely recognized earliest antipope was Hippolytus of Rome (d. 235) who protested against Pope Callixtus I and headed a separate group within the Roman Catholic Church.[3] Hippolytus was later reconciled to Callixtus's second successor Pope Pontian, when both were condemned to the mines on the island of Sardinia. He has been canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Whether two or more persons have been confused in this account of Hippolytus,[4] and whether Hippolytus actually declared himself to be the Bishop of Rome, remains unclear, especially since no such claim is found in the writings attributed to him.[5]


The period when antipopes were most numerous was during the struggles between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. The emperors frequently imposed their own nominees, in order to further their cause. (The popes, likewise, sometimes sponsored rival imperial claimants in Germany in order to overcome a particular emperor.)


This was the beginning of the period of difficulty from 1378 to 1417 which Catholic scholars refer to as the "Western schism" or, "the great controversy of the antipopes" (also called "the second great schism" by some secular and Protestant historians), when parties within the Catholic church were divided in their allegiances among the various claimants to the office of pope. The Council of Constance in 1417 finally resolved the controversy.


As for Sylvester III, sometimes listed as an Antipope, the Holy See's Annuario Pontificio classifies him as a Pope, not an Antipope. In line with its above-quoted remark on the obscurities about the canon law of the time and the historical facts, especially in the mid-eleventh century, it makes no judgement on the legitimacy of his takeover of the position of Pope in 1045. The Catholic Encyclopedia places him in its List of Popes [7] though with the annotation: "Considered by some to be an antipope." 041b061a72


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